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A collection of frequently used git commands

The book Pro Git, a comprehensive reference and tutorial, is available at https://git-scm.com/book/en/v2

Configuration

git config --global user.name "Darth Vader"
git config --global user.email "dvader@deathstar.com"
Set your name and email address for commit messages

git config --list
Show current config settings

git config -e
Edit config file with $EDITOR

Repository setup and cloning

git init
Initialize new local repo

git clone git@gitlab.mycompany.com:groupproject.git
Clone a copy of repo to groupproject subdirectory

Make changes

git add
Add individual files to the next commit

git add --all
git add -A
Add all changed files to the next commit

git status
Show status of uncommitted changes

git diff
Show changes not yet staged

git diff --staged
git diff HEAD~1
Show changes ready to be committed

git reset
Remove file from the next commit (no content change)

git checkout -- <file>
Check out a file from the last commit, overwrite current contents

git reset HEAD~1
Undo most recent commit, preserve changes

git reset --hard HEAD~1
Undo most recent commit, discard changes

Commit changes

git commit
Commit all staged changes, enter $EDITOR to create commit message

git commit -m "commmit message"
Commit staged changes and specify commit message without entering $EDITOR

git commit --amend
Edit the commit message of the most recent commit

git commit --amend <file1> <file2> ...
Amend previous commit, including changes made to listed files

View history

git log
List commits, most recent first

git log --grep=string
List commits having "string" in commit message

git log --author=name
List commits by "name" author

git log --follow <file>
List commits affecting <file>
(git whatchanged is depreciated)

git show <commitID>
Show changes in a specific commit

git show --name-only <commitID>
Show only names of files changed by a commit

git blame <file>
Show the author and commit ID of each line of <file>

git diff <rev1> <rev2>
Show differences between commits or branches

git log --all --full-history -- <path to file>

Find a deleted file in the repo, if the full path is known

git log --all --full-history -- **/filename.*
Find a deleted file in the repo, if the full path is not known

Branches

git branch
List local branches

git branch -r
List remote branches

git branch -a
List local and remote branches

git branch -av
List local and remote branches with last commit ID and message

git branch <name>
Create a new branch

git checkout <name>
Switches to the specified branch and updates working directory

git checkout -b <name>
Creates new branch then checks out

git branch -d <name>
Delete branch, but only if already merged

git branch -D <name>
Delete branch unconditionally

Working with Remotes

git remote -v
Show URL of remote repository

git fetch
Updates history from remote

git merge
Update current branch with changes from remote

git pull
Download changes and update current branch,
equivalent to git fetch followed by git merge

git push origin <name>
Push local branch to remote repository
Create remote branch if it doesn't already exist
If remote branch exists, pushes local changes

git push origin --delete <name>
Delete remote branch

Rebasing

git rebase <branch>
Rebase the current branch to <branch>

git rebase -i HEAD~5
Interactively rebase the last 5 commits, usually used to "squash"
multiple commits into one.

Stashing

git stash save
git stash save <name>
Save staged changes to a new stash and restore current branch
to last committed state.
(unstaged changes are not saved)

git stash apply
git stash apply <name>
Apply the changes from the most recent stash (or named stash) to the current working tree

git stash pop
Apply the changes from the most recent stash to the current working tree, and delete the stash

git stash list
List current stashes

git stash show <name> -p
Show the contents of a stash - accepts all diff args

git stash drop
Delete a stash

git stash clear
Delete all stashes

Housekeeping

git branch --merged
Show local branches that have been merged (candidates for deletion)

git branch -r --merged
Show remote branches that have been merged (candidates for deletion)

git branch --no-merged
Show local branches that have not been merged

git remote prune origin
Delete local copies of remote branches that have been deleted

git remote prune --dry-run origin
Show local branches that would be deleted but don't delete them

git fetch -p
Combine fetch and prune in one command

for branch in `git branch -r --merged | grep -v HEAD`; do echo -e `git show --format="%ci %cr %an" $branch | head -n 1` \\t$branch; done | sort -r
List remote merged branches with last commit date and author